Just heard of this super cool application of artificial intelligence to ecology!
Apparently, because of overfishing, the predators of the crown-of-stars starfish are decreasing in population size, which is leaving them to grow rampant. They normally eat the polyps on the Great Barrier Reef though, and so now, not only are humans destroying it at a rapid rate, but the crown-of-stars starfish are as well.
As a result, scientists have crafted a robot (COTsbot) that shimmies up and down the coast of the Great Barrier Reef and injects poison into all the crown-of-stars starfish that eat polyps.
Read more here.